The third factor influencing Catholic social thought was the actions of certain Catholic leaders. In 30s America, it was eastern Europeans and Jews. The message to Niebuhr was clear, the Socialist Party was not an acceptable means to a social movement for most Americans. He also founded the Jewish Institute of Religion in New York as a liberal alternative to the Hebrew Union College, the official Reform rabbinate. A gifted student he graduated head of his class from high school and from Colgate University, at the time a small Baptist college. Facts about Racism in 1930s America elaborate the information about a major issue occurred since the colonial period. They suggested that capitalism must be brought under some form of social control, which to some meant socialism. Although a discernable swing to the political left by 1930 was typical of many Protestant denominations, within each denomination this swing was fairly minor. Reading, MA: Addison-Wesley Publishing Company, Inc., 1987. Although many Americans sympathized with the plight of the European Jews under growing Nazi oppression, they also feared bringing more immigrants needing jobs to America, which could further worsen economic conditions. This section contains 2,211 words (approx. The impact of the Depression was felt in the Jewish charities. By 1900 Catholic charities supported many institutions providing care to needy people, children, elderly, the sick, and disabled, and prisoners. Nevertheless yet another difficulty American Jews had to contend with was growing anti-Semitism in the United States. In keeping with Thomas Jefferson and President Roosevelt's love of rural life, Catholics promoted rural living for its social stability and the opportunities it afforded to live a "truly Christian life." Distinguished Episcopal leader Bishop William Manning, Methodist Bishop Edwin Holt Hughes, Methodist Dr. Christian F. Reisner of the New York East Conference and Presbyterian Dr. Guthrie Speers all defended capitalism. Church membership skyrocketed, and thousands of new congregations were formed. This relationship influences the price of the commodity. Divine's Peace Movement claimed that it had many millions of adherents, however, in actuality numbers estimated between 3,000 to 25,000. The formation of so-called community federations consisting of large combinations of various charities and social service organizations accelerated. New England annual conference deplored greed of private profit. The number of banks declined from 25,000 in late 1929 to only 14,000 in early 1933. Pick a style below, and copy the text for your bibliography. In his work, Ryan, as head of the Social Action Department of the new National Catholic Welfare Conference, encouraged businessmen and labor to cooperate. Among American authors in the 1930s who wrote their usually more controversial or experimental and less realistic works were Gertrude Stein, who in 1933 published the memoir of her Paris years entitled The Autobiography of Alice B. Toklas, and Henry Miller, who in the 1930s wrote and published his semi autobiographical novels Tropic of Cancer, Black Spring, and Tropic of Capricorn. Reverend Frederic Siedenourg, ex-dean of Detroit University, commented that Roosevelt's NRA was not trying to destroy capitalism, but rather, to humanize it "to meet the needs of the people during the depression" (Flynn, p. 88). Further, that it was the communists, not the Christians, who had organized the marches. Zionism was the idea that a Jewish homeland should be established where Israel now exists. The document outlined a program of massive social reform including minimum-wage laws, social insurance programs such as unemployment and insurance for the elderly, and labor empowerment in the workplace. In 1933 he organized a rally of over 50,000 people at Madison Square Garden in New York City and also helped to organize a boycott of German products and attempted to halt American participation in the 1936 Olympic Games in Berlin. For others, in order to get a good position with a firm, some Jewish men and women resorted to the tactic of "passing" which meant hiding their Jewish background. Pastors took courses in advertising and dreamed up slogans such as "Business Success and Religion Go Together." Are you paying attention? In the 1920s many Americans looked back at World War I with revulsion. All major denominations joined and supported the League, however, the Communist Party was also a member and by the mid-1930s the League was widely accused of being communist. For the years 1933 through 1942 far fewer actually immigrated, amounting to only five percent of the quota in 1933, then increasing each of the following years to 65 percent of the quota in 1938 and finally one hundred percent in 1939. American Jewry in the 1930s not only faced the social and economic difficulties wrought by the Great Depression, but were deeply involved with their fellow Jews abroad, particularly in Germany and its Those individuals who are spoken of as being "right" of center or "right wing" are conservatives. Whatever road the different faiths took, churches certainly displayed great concern for the major issues confronting society during the Depression. The presidential election of 1928 was between Republican Herbert Hoover and Democrat "Al" Smith. His effort to engage more people was highly successful as his parish grew rapidly. Although an embarrassment to the official Catholic leadership, radio priest Father Charles E. Coughlin and his Christian Front were openly anti-Semitic. Sensitive laymen rebelled at the idea that only Catholic clergy could care for its people. Evolution challenged religion a lot during the 1920's. The Catholic Press was practically unanimous in its praise for the Roosevelt's Administration first hundred days. Reverend Francis J. Haas served in several prominent positions in the NRA's labor department. History of American Religion:1600 to 2017 Share Flipboard Email Print Daniel Grill/Tetra images/Getty Images Other Religions. Prices, production, and distribution of goods are determined mainly by competition. If the Roosevelt administration formally condemned Germany, they would be accused of interfering in German internal affairs and damage already strained relations. He also founded the Union for Democratic (UDA), an anti-fascist, noncommunist, pro-labor, educational group. Local churches undertook various responsibilities such as operating employment bureaus, canvassing for jobs, distributing coal, wood, food and clothing, and running recreational and educational programs. Kincheloe, Samuel C. Research Memorandum on Religion in the Depression. The NCCC urged immediate direct relief funds. Prominent Catholic Dorothy Day, founder of Ann Arbor, MI: UMI Research Press, 1981. The following video provides a short look into the religious revival of the 1930s, including a brief introduction to Father Charles Coughlin, one of the key figures of the era. The Third Great Awakening was a period Maurin had a plan he called "utopian Christian communism, " which Day immediately recognized as a bridge to her own commitment to the poor. Since many Americans could no longer afford such items, Jews were some of the first to feel the economic contraction. At the conservative end of the spectrum, the journal Arkansas Methodist appeared to not support much of the New Deal. Those in Congress in favor of liberalizing the laws for humanitarian reasons were thwarted by those who actually argued for more restrictive provisions. Facts about Racism in 1930s America 2: the xenophobic exclusion The different type of racism was experienced by the Italians, Poles and Irish people. Roosevelt also won with convincing majorities in the 12 largest U.S. cities, where most of the Catholic vote was concentrated. Consequently when Roosevelt emerged as a landslide winner in the elections it was clear many Protestants did not lean in the same direction as the Protestant press. At the young age of seven he pledged his life to Christian service. Day was dismayed that American Christianity was not helping the hungry men, women, and children. Newly ordained Catholic priest, Father Charles E. Coughlin was appointed in 1926 to a suburban parish, Shrine of the Little Flower, in Royal Oak, Michigan. By 1932 over 50,000 Jews were unemployed in Chicago and requests for welfare from Jewish charities increased two hundred percent. Protestantism is a Christian religion, that is, its members believe in Jesus Christ. He insisted the church must play a central role. The act established a cooperative federal-state unemployment compensation system, established old age insurance which commonly became known as social security, and allowed for direct relief payments to poverty stricken elderly, the destitute blind, crippled, and dependent children. M…, Relics, Pilgrimages, and the Peace of God, Religion and Philosophy: Documentary Sources, Religion and Philosophy: Significant People, Religion and Philosophy: Topics in Religion and Philosophy, Religion and Secularism in Constitutional Interpretation and Democratic Debate, https://www.encyclopedia.com/education/news-and-education-magazines/religion-1931-1939, Church, History of, IV (Late Modern: 1789–2002), A-I: Morally unobjectionable for general patronage. Landis, Benson Y., ed. First they created the newspaper The Catholic Worker, which by the end of 1933 had a circulation of 100,000. A Catholic New Deal: Religion and Reform in Depression Pittsburgh. To influence the direction in the rise of industrial unions Catholics formed the Association of Catholic Trade Unionists (ACTU) in 1937. Elijah became the new messenger of Islam and the movement spread from the initial temple in Detroit to almost every major city in the country where a large black population lived. * Views captured on Cambridge Core between September 2016 - 28th December 2020. Two journals representing the Federal Council of Churches of Christ in America, an organization of 23 Protestant denominations, the Federal Council Bulletin and Information Service examined social problems. By the mid-1940s The Catholic Worker circulation had dropped to 55,000. Lexington: University of Kentucky Press, 1968. Catholic Charities in the United States. Some believed war could be used as a last resort but others clung to strict pacifism and refused to support any forceful opposition. They saw abundant production of food and starving people; banks bulging with money and severe poverty; tons of idle machinery and millions of unemployed; mountains of coal, and freezing people. McConnell supported Socialist Party presidential candidate Norman Thomas in 1928 and 1932. Holmes advocated pacifism and civil liberties including racial equality. Another, George Donahue, wished to help clean up the International Longshoremen's Association which had felt the impact of gangster infiltration. Reverend John A. Ryan was seated on the Advisory Council of the U.S. Employment Service and the Advisory Committee of the Subsistence Homestead Division in the National Reconstruction Administration. Although just as caught up in surviving the Depression as the general public, American Jews watched as dark clouds gathered in Germany. Dissatisfied with President Hoover's attempts at solving the Depression, a statement from American Catholic leadership published under the NCWC on November 12, 1931, called for the American government to adopt and apply elements of the Quadragesimo Anno. A number of groups also actively supported proposals for Haas first served on the National Recovery Administration's Labor Advisory Board and the General Code Authority. Unlike the most liberal Protestant leaders, no important Catholic leader challenged the doctrine of private property. Roosevelt even did better among Irish Catholic and Italian voters in Boston than the Catholic Democratic presidential candidate Al Smith in 1928. He authored Moral Man and Immoral Society in 1932, An Interpretation of Christian Ethics in 1935, and later the major works of Beyond Tragedy (1937) and The Nature and Destiny of Man (two volumes, 1941 and 1943). Coughlin endorsed the earliest policies of President Roosevelt's New Deal and Roosevelt actually consulted with him a few times. During its 13 years of existence the ACTU ultimately established 20 chapters, taught thousands of local union activists, organized extensive union conferences, published several newspapers, established legal defense, and elected members and supporters to local and international union offices. The NCWC, directed by the bishops of the United States, met frequently each year to discuss public affairs. Protestant church groups had come to feel the inadequacy of their loosely organized philanthropy and relief efforts. These terms are not to be confused with the labels of liberal and conservative as applied to theological (religious) thinking. In 1910 Catholic social workers founded a network, known as Catholic Charities, to organize and coordinate the many Catholic charitable institutions across the nation. America remains a largely Christian nation, although less so than in the past. Faced with such severe conditions many looked for leaders to help solve the problems and provide hope. Many Protestant leaders including Harry Fosdick vocally resented the intimidation by businessmen, and both Methodists and Presbyterians denounced the businessmen's action. Weber, Herman C., ed. (xroads.virgina.edu) Racism was as strong as ever in the Southern States. With people unable to repay loans made for homes and farms because of lost jobs or decreased wages, the nation had been experiencing widespread bank failures. The FBI under J. Edgar Hoover went after gangsters, and Franklin D. Roosevelt became synonymous with the decade with his New Deal and "fireside chats." According to the Catholic Herald these actions were a "New Deal in which the cards are not stacked by greed and power against the people and their government" (Flynn p. 61). Handy, Robert T. A Christian America: Protestant Hopes and Historical Realities. These rumors had been fueled by auto industry magnate Henry Ford, who, beginning in 1922, launched an anti-Semitic propaganda campaign in his newspaper the Dearborn, Michigan, Independent. The right of employees and employers alike to organize for collective bargaining and social action; protection of both in the exercise of this right; the obligation of both to work for the public good; encouragement of cooperatives and other organizations among farmers and other groups. As the control policies of the AAA unfolded certain issues arose in the Catholic communities. Social insurance against sickness, accident, want in old age and unemployment. Render date: 2020-12-28T23:01:45.894Z New York: Round Table Press, Inc., 1933. German Jews became the "scapegoat." Growing disillusioned he left France for Canada, then turned up in New York in the late 1920s, preaching Christian poverty and service. The most dangerous Catholic defector from the Democratic Party was Father Charles Coughlin. Like Fosdick, McConnell stopped short of being a genuine socialist. In the next five years, the Catholic Worker grew phenomenally. Moving to Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania in 1920, he directed his attention to labor disputes and called attention to the inhumane 12-hour day of steel workers. Although the hundreds of movies produced in the 1920s were silent, they "spoke" volumes as they depicted murder, rape, drug use, and sexual misconduct. Coughlin claimed he and his followers blocked the United States from joining the World Court in 1935. About 43 percent of the public attended church before the war; by 1950 more than 55 percent were members of religious groups, a figure that would increase to 69 percent by the end of the 1950s. Reinhold Niebuhr (1892–1971). "peerReview": true, Many had ventured North in the early years of the twentieth century in search of a better life. The equality between the white people and colored people was not seen here even though they were separated. They began a newspaper, formed a speaker's bureau to teach Catholic social doctrine, and won Baptist Harry Emerson Fosdick of the nondenominational Riverside Church in New York City fell into the first category. Religion in the early 1900s The Social Gospel Movement was a movement brought on by Protestants in the Progressive Era. None of Smith's attributes appealed to the average Protestant, especially Protestants in the rural West and South. The Roman Catholic Church sharply resisted the secular trends of American society. New York: Oxford University Press, 1977. Niebuhr was one of the last great liberal Protestant orators of the twentieth century. "Jewish Defense League," available from the World Wide Web at http://www.jdl.org. The perception that the United States continued as a Protestant nation remained strong. Educated at Stanford University, Hoover had served as secretary of commerce in both the Harding and Coolidge administrations. The decline in fund raising also severely impacted the amount of federation funds available for overseas relief and for land purchases for immigrant resettlement in the Middle East. Therefore, they had the xeniphobic exclusion. Communism was an economic and political system where all property was in theory collectively owned by all and controlled by a one party government. Many wondered that it might be themselves soon looking for help, therefore this daily fear led them to help those already affected. Roosevelt, Franklin D. The Public Papers and Addresses of Franklin D. Roosevelt, Volume One, 1929–1932. The Public Papers and Addresses of Franklin D. Roosevelt, Volume Two, 1933. Orthodox believed only a Messiah (spiritual leader from God) could restore Jews to Israel. The Catholic school system was impressive. This perspective represented a sharp break for Catholics who had long viewed constitutional limits on government as fortification against potential anti-Catholic persecution by the government. African American churches and the Reverend Martin Luther King Jr. provided leadership. This support was rooted in the church's membership consisting primarily of lower working classes and immigrants. The Federal Council of Churches of Christ in America, a federation made up of 23 Protestant denominations spoke out for reform of American society. Not feeling at home in Reform or Conservative synagogues, they formed their own Orthodox institutions. George E. Haynes, educator and sociologist, led the commission for approximately 25 years. organizations championed capitalism. Fosdick, McConnell, Page, and Williams illustrated the range of Protestant thinking from a Christian liberalism to socialism to the edges of radicalism. 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